Speed to Perform


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By Darelle Noel

Most people believe speed is something you’re born with and that you’re genetically inclined to be fast. But it has little to do with that – it’s a science. You can train your body to produce more force and the way you deliver force to the ground. And once that happens, it will completely change your perception of how fast or explosive you ever thought you could be.

Speed is an integral part of every sport and can be expressed as one of or a combination of Power(Elastic Strength) for acceleration, absolute speed and speed endurance. Speed is the quickness of movement of a limb generated by the athletes ability to apply force and generate it with great frequency.

(Force X Frequency=Speed)

Maximizing stride length and stride frequency is mainly influenced by the athletes stability, mobility, strength and technique. Having good hamstring flexibility and hip mobility improves stride frequency (the ability to strike and recover) and stride length is improved by developing muscular strength and explosive power i.e. olympic Lifts and Plyometrics.

Developing speed is a rather complex process that is controlled by the nervous system, learning the movements needed to develop speed and learning how to perform them are equally important. In order to move faster the muscles have to adapt and contract faster, The brain and the nervous system have to learn the motor skills to control these fast movements efficiently. Practicing the basic fundamentals of running will not only improve your running ability but also improve your brains ability to adapt and perform the movements quickly. Complex coordination and timing of the motor units and muscle groups must be performed beginning with slow speeds transitioning to high speeds to improve patterns. Maintaining some form of speed training on a consistent basis will ensure that your movement patterns and nervous system will stay in sync.

General Principles for speed development are:
•Work on your mobility to develop ROM, range of motion in your hips will drastically effect your speed and assist in preventing injuries.
•Improve flexibility to improve your turnover ability.
•Perform explosive and plyometrics movements such as jumping, hopping and bounding to develop explosive power that translate to running.
•Implement skill development for sports specific speed. IT HAS TO TRANSLATE TO THE SPORT!!
•Train Energy System specifically to maintain and maximize endurance and speed over time.

FullSizeRender 21 Blog Post written by Darelle Noel, Athletic Gaines Performance Specialist.  I have had the good fortune to work with him at Catz Physical Therapy/Athletic Gaines Pasadena. You can find him on Instagram @dmn_1of1

Is Your Lack of Ankle Mobility Increasing Your Risk for Knee Injury?

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By Ashley Pena, DPT Student
 According to the NCAA Injury Surveillance system, knee internal derangements accounted for the highest percentage of more severe injuries sustained by college athletes (44.1% in games and 25.5% in practices) and approximately 70% of all game and practice injuries affected the lower extremities. As a result of these studies, much thought has gone into what factors contribute to this in an attempt to prevent, or rehabilitate these injuries while decreasing pain and improving performance. Although there are many factors which have been found to contribute such as muscle weakness, body type, training factors and others, little thought is given to the ankle joint unless it is giving the athlete pain.
When a person lacks dorsiflexion range of motion, often times compensations begin to manifest such as excessive pronation or “fallen arch”,  hip external rotation or “out-toeing” during walking, or lack of knee flexion with landing, all of which can increase the valgus forces on the knee and decrease shock absorption which can place a person more at risk for ACL injury, meniscus injury, or collateral ligament strains. In a systematic literature review done by Mason-McKay et. al, strong evidence was found that a restriction in DF ROM alters landing mechanics with specific studies reporting that altered frontal plane ankle motion (inversion and eversion), reduced sagittal knee excursion, and greater peak knee valgus.
 Blog Post written by Ashley Pena, DPT Student from Cal State Northridge.  Ashley is currently in her final clinical rotation with me at Catz PTI.

Sources:

  1. Arendt E, Dick R. Knee Injury Patterns Among Men and Women in Collegiate Basketball and Soccer. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1995;23(6):694-701.
  2. Dick RM, Putukian M. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Women’s Soccer Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2002–2003. Journal of Athletic Training. 2007;42(2):278-285.
  3. Kerr ZY, Marshall SW. College Sports–Related Injuries — United States, 2009–10 Through 2013–14 Academic Years. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6448a2.htm. Published December 11, 2015. Accessed June 5, 2017.
  4. Mason-Mackay A, Whatman C, Reid D. The effect of reduced ankle dorsiflexion on lower extremity mechanics during landing: A systematic review. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2017;20(5):451-458. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.06.006.
  5. Taunton JE, Ryan MB, Clement DB, McKenzie DC, Llyod-Smith DF, Zumbo BD.  A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries.  Br J Sports Med 2002; 36: 95-101.

What is Turf Toe?


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By Meggie Morley, DPT

During Game 3 of the Clipper’s series against the Utah Jazz, Blake Griffin suffered an injury to his toe that would rule him out for the remainder of the playoffs. He recently underwent surgery to treat his injury, which was reported as an injury to the plantar plate of his big toe. This injury is also known as turf toe, and even though it may seem like a small injury it can greatly affect the ability to participate in sports, recreational activities and even walking.

Toe Anatomy

Turf toe typically refers to an injury to the big toe. The big toe is comprised of two bones, known as the distal and proximal phalange. The proximal phalange attaches to the metatarsal bone in the foot, forming the metatarsal phalangeal joint (MTP). Underneath the MTP is the plantar plate, a small sesamoid bone, and various ligaments and muscle attachments.   Turf toe 2

Mechanics of Injury

Turf toe typically occurs when the first toe is hyperextended. In other words, when the toes are planted on the ground and the rest of the foot is lifting off the ground. This position places strain on the bottom of the MTP joint, causing damage to the plantar plate and surrounding structures. This injury occurs commonly on turf due to the harder surface, which can cause the toes to be stuck in place. The symptoms of turf toe include pain, tenderness, bruising, stiffness and swelling at the joint.  Parents should watch for avoidance behaviors and painful gait patterns in their children.

Ligament Sprain Grade

Grade I: The ligament is stretched and there may be small tears

Grade II: Large tear, but the tear doesn’t completely go through the ligament

Grade III: Complete rupture of the ligament

Recovery time depends on the grade of the sprain, and in the case of complete tears surgery may be necessary. For any turf toe injury, rest is required in order to allow for healing.  Bracing, splinting and taping are often used for weight bearing tolerance so it is important to prevent adhesions in the injured structures. Passive ROM can be initiated within a few days of Grade I and II injuries along with non-impact activities. Grade III injuries require immobilization but even if surgery is needed, ROM can be performed at 5-7 days post op.  Make sure to see a PT and find out what you can be doing throughout all phases of recovery.

FullSizeRender 9Blog Post written by Meggie Morley, DPT.  At the time of posting Meggie was in her final clinical rotation with me at Catz Physical Therapy Institute.

References

1. Stanley, Laura. Physical Therapist’s Guide to Turf Toe. Retrieved from http://www.moveforwardpt.com/symptomsconditionsdetail.aspx?cid=6db543a6-7a53-4dcd-8141-3137c4391f07

2. McCormick JJ, Anderson RB. Turf toe: anatomy, diagnosis, and treatment. Sports Health. 2010; 2(6):487–494.

3. Garguilo, C. (2015). Foot and Ankle Orthopedics (Power Point slides). Retrieved from https://courseworks.columbia.edu/access/content/group/PHYTM8610_081_2015_2/Lectures/Ankle/Camtasia%20Foot%20and%20Ankle%20Lectures/Camtasia%20Lecture%20Foot%20Ankle%20Disorders%20Handout%202015%20Section%203.pdf